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A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weaponbut today predominantly for sport. The javelin is almost always thrown by hand, unlike the bow and arrow and slingshotwhich shoot projectiles from a mechanism.

However, devices do exist to assist the javelin thrower in achieving greater distance, generally called Sans Toi Ma Mie - Adamo - Cest Ma Vie!. The word javelin comes from Middle English and it derives from Old French javelina diminutive of javelotwhich meant spear.

The word javelot probably originated from one of the Celtic languages. There is archaeological evidence that javelins and throwing sticks were already in use by the last phase of the lower Paleolithic.

Stratigraphic dating indicates that the weapons are aboutyears old. They were manufactured with the maximum thickness and weight situated at the front end of the wooden shaft. The frontal centre of gravity suggests that these pole weapons were used as javelins. A fossilized horse shoulder blade with a projectile wound, dated toyears ago, was revealed in a gravel quarry in the village of BoxgroveEngland.

Studies suggested that the wound was probably caused by a javelin. It was lighter in weight than that used by other nations. He describes the Ancient Egyptian javelin's features:. It consisted of a long thin shaft, sometimes merely pointed, but generally armed with a head, which was either leaf-shaped, or like the head of a spear, or else four-sided, and attached to the shaft by projections at the angles.

A strap or tasseled head was situated at the lower end of the javelin: it allowed the javelin thrower to recover his javelin after throwing it. Egyptian military trained from a young age in special military schools. Focusing on gymnastics to gain strength, hardiness and endurance in childhood, they learned to throw the javelin — along with practicing archery and the battle-axe — when they grew older, before entering a specific regiment. Javelins were carried by Egyptian light infantry, as a main weapon, and as an alternative to a spear or Nearness Of Harbour - Javelin / Löwy - Broken Surface bow and arrow, generally along with a shield.

They also carried a curved sword, a club or a hatchet as a side-arm. Beyond its military purpose, the javelin was likely also a hunting instrument, both to seek food and as a sport. The peltastsusually serving as skirmisherswere armed with several javelins, often with throwing straps to increase stand-off power.

The peltasts hurled their javelins at the enemy's heavier troops, the hoplite phalanxin order to break their lines so that their own army's hoplites could destroy the weakened enemy formation. In the battle of Lechaeumthe Athenian general Iphicrates took advantage of the fact that a Spartan hoplite phalanx operating near Corinth was moving in the open field without the protection of any missile-throwing troops. He decided to ambush it with his force of peltasts.

By launching repeated Nearness Of Harbour - Javelin / Löwy - Broken Surface attacks against the Spartan formation, Iphicrates and his men were able to wear the Spartans down, eventually routing them and killing just under half. This marked the first recorded occasion in ancient Greek military history in which a force entirely made up of peltasts had defeated a force of hoplites. The thureophoroi and thorakitaiwho gradually replaced the peltasts, carried javelins in addition to a long thrusting spear and a short sword.

Javelins were often used as an effective hunting weapon, the strap adding enough power to take down large game. Javelins were El Arbol - Humo Sapiens - La Caja Negra used in the Ancient Olympics and other Panhellenic games.

They were hurled in a certain direction and whoever hurled it the farthest, as long as it hit tip-first, won that game.

In the ancient world España Caní - Various - 14 Heerlijke Hollandse Hits were often thrown with the aid of a throwing string, or Amentum.

After this defeat, the Romans undertook a comprehensive reform of their army and changed the basic tactical formation from the Greek-style phalanx armed with the hasta spear and the clipeus round shield to a more flexible three-line formation.

The Hastati stood in the first line, the Principes in the second line and the Triarii at the third Nearness Of Harbour - Javelin / Löwy - Broken Surface.

While the Triarii were still armed with the hasta, the Hastati and the Principes were rearmed with short swords and heavy javelins. Each soldier from the Hastati and Principes lines carried two javelins.

The iron shank was either socketed or, more usually, widened to a flat tang. A pilum usually weighed between 2 and 5 pounds 0. Pictorial evidence suggests that some versions of the weapon were weighted with a lead ball at the base of the shank in order to increase penetrative power, but no archaeological specimens have been found. Pila were sometimes referred to as javelins, but the archaic term for the javelin was verutum.

From the third century BC, the Roman legion added a skirmisher type of soldier to its tactical formation. The Velites were light infantry armed with a short sword the gladius or pugioa small round shield, and several small javelins.

These javelins were called veruta singular "verutum". The Velites typically drew near the enemy, hurled javelins against their formation, and then retreated behind the legion's heavier infantry.

The Velites were considered highly effective in turning back war elephantson account of discharging a hail of javelins at some range and not presenting a "block" that could be trampled on or otherwise smashed — unlike the close-order infantry behind them. At the Battle of Zama in BC, the javelin-throwing Velites proved their worth and were no doubt critical in helping to herd Hannibal's war elephants through the formation to be slaughtered.

The Velites would slowly have been either disbanded or re-equipped as more-heavily armed legionaries from the time when Gaius Marius and other Roman generals reorganised the army in the late second and early first centuries BC.

Their role would most likely have been taken by irregular auxiliary troops as the Republic expanded overseas. The verutum was a cheaper missile weapon than the pilum.

The verutum was a short-range weapon, with a simply made head of soft iron. Legionaries of the Late Outside The Main - Blue-Eyed Son - West Of Lincoln and Early Empire often carried two pila, with one sometimes being lighter than the other.

Standard tactics called for a Roman soldier to throw his pilum both if there was time at the enemy just before charging to engage with his gladius.

Some pila had small hand-guards, to protect the wielder if he intended to use it as a melee weapon, but it does not appear that this was common. In the late Roman Empire, the Roman infantry came to use a differently-shaped javelin from the earlier pilum.

This javelin was lighter and had a greater range. Called a plumbatait resembled a thick stocky arrow, fletched with leather vanes to provide stability and rotation in flight which increased accuracy. To overcome its comparatively small mass, the plumbata was fitted with an oval-shaped lead weight socketed around the shaft just forward of the center of balancegiving the weapon its name. Even so, plumbatae were much lighter than pila, and would not have had the armour penetration or shield transfixing capabilities of their earlier counterparts.

Two or three plumbatae were typically clipped to a small High Tide - Various - Eat This Tape Vol. 2 bracket on the inside of the large oval or round shields used at the time.

Massed troops would unclip and hurl plumbatae as the enemy neared, hopefully stalling their movement and morale by making them clump together and huddle under their shields. With the enemy deprived of rapid movement and their visibility impaired Nonc Charlot - Balfa Toujours - La Pointe their own raised shields, the Roman troops were then better placed to exploit the tactical situation.

It is unlikely plumbatae were In Other Words - Danny Williams - Moon River by the Romans as the killing blow, but more as a means of stalling the enemy at ranges greater than previously provided by the heavier and shorter ranged pilum.

The Gallic cavalry used to hurl several javelin volleys to soften the enemy before Itza Trumpet Thing (Funky Space Mix) - Gordon Matthewman - Itza Trumpet Thing frontal attack. The Gallic cavalry Black Out - Various - A Tribute To The Scorpions their javelins in a tactic similar to that of horse archers ' Parthian shot.

The Gauls knew how to turn on horseback to throw javelins backwards while appearing to retreat. The Hispanic cavalry was a light cavalry armed with a Falcata and several light javelins. The Nearness Of Harbour - Javelin / Löwy - Broken Surface tribes invented a military tactic to maximize the advantages of the combination Nearness Of Harbour - Javelin / Löwy - Broken Surface horse and javelin. In this tactic the horsemen rode around in circles, toward and Weisst Du Wohin?

- Roland Kaiser - Die Schönsten Liebeslieder Der Welt from the enemy, continually hurling javelins. The tactic was usually employed against heavy infantry. The constant movement of the horsemen gave them an advantage against slow infantry and made them hard to target.

The maneuver was designed to harass and taunt the enemy forces, disrupting close formations. This was commonly used against enemy infantry, especially the heavily armed and slow moving legions of the Romans. This tactic came to be known as the Cantabrian circle. In the late Republic various auxiliary cavalry completely replaced the Italian cavalry contingents and the Hispanic auxiliary cavalry was considered the best.

The Numidians were indigenous tribes of northwest Africa. The Numidian cavalry was a light cavalry usually operating as skirmishers. The Numidian horseman was armed with a small shield and several javelins. The Numidians had a reputation as swift horsemen, cunning soldiers and excellent javelin throwers. It is said that Jugurthathe Numidian king " There is some literary and archeological evidence that the Norse were familiar with and used the javelin for hunting and warfare, but they commonly Nearness Of Harbour - Javelin / Löwy - Broken Surface a spear designed for both throwing and thrusting.

The Old Norse word for javelin was frakka. The Anglo-Saxon term for javelin was france. Javelins, including barbed angonswere used as an offensive weapon from behind the shield wall or by warriors who left the protective formation and attacked the enemy as skirmishers. The Almogavars were a class of Catalan infantrymen armed with a short sword, a shield and two heavy javelins, known as azcona.

The Jinetes were Arabic light horsemen armed with a javelin, sword and a shield, they were proficient at skirmishing and rapid maneuver, and played an important role in Arabic mounted warfare throughout the Reconquista until the sixteenth century.

The Welshparticularly those of North Walesused the javelin as one of their main weapons. During the Norman and later English invasionsthe primary Welsh tactic was to rain javelins on the tired, hungry and heavily armoured English troops and then retreat into the mountains or woods before the English troops could pursue and attack them.

This tactic was very successful, since it demoralized and damaged the English armies while the Welsh ranks suffered little. Various kingdoms and dynasties in China have used javelins, such as the iron-headed javelin of the Qing dynasty. Qi Jiguang 's anti-pirate army included javelin throwers with shields.

Many African kingdoms have used the javelin as their main weapon since ancient times. Typical African warfare was based on ritualized stand-off encounters involving throwing javelins without advancing for close combat.

In the flag of Eswatini there is a shield and two javelins, which symbolize the protection from the country's enemies. The Zulu warriors Nearness Of Harbour - Javelin / Löwy - Broken Surface a long version of the assegai javelin as their primary weapon.

The assegai was not discarded, but was used for an initial missile assault. With the larger shields, introduced by Shaka to the Zulu army, the short spears used as stabbing swords and the opening phase of javelin attack the Zulu regiments were quite similar to the Roman legion with its ScutumGladius and Pilum tactical combination.

In Norse mythology, Odin, the chief god, carried a javelin or spear called Gungnir. It was created by a group of dwarves known as the Sons of Ivaldi who also fashioned the ship of Freyr called Skidbladnir and the golden hair of Sif.

During the war and subsequent alliance between the Aesir and Vanir at the dawn of time, Odin hurled a javelin over the enemy host [22] which, according to custom, was thought to bring good fortune or victory to the thrower. When the god Baldr began to have prophetic dreams of his own death, his mother Frigg extracted an oath from all things in nature not to harm him.


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8 thoughts on “ Nearness Of Harbour - Javelin / Löwy - Broken Surface ”

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  2. of the javelin throw, one of which is the javelin’s structure and the other is the release conditions. The javelin’s structure consists of the moment of inertia relative to COM, the surface area, the lateral drag area, the skin friction drag coefficient, the lateral pressure drag coefficient and the influence of the.
  3. Not All Javelins are Created Equal: A Quick Lesson on Meters and Metals. No. If you throw a javelin 40m, you could get by using a 50m jav. However, if you throw an 80m jav anything shy of ~70m, it will most likely land flat or tail first- resulting in a foul.
  4. A javelin is a light spear designed primarily to be thrown, historically as a ranged weapon, but today predominantly for kelediballadomeenasnowforge.infoinfo javelin is almost always thrown by hand, unlike the bow and arrow and slingshot, which shoot projectiles from a kelediballadomeenasnowforge.infoinfor, devices do exist to assist the javelin thrower in achieving greater distance, generally called spear-throwers.
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